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WORKUP SHEET 4 CLAIM VALENTINA DORIA I II III - SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

4 CLAIM THE PROPHECIES OF ST MALACHY OF UBERTO OF THE MILANESE OF CRIVELLI

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4 CLAIM HITS FOR THIS SITE - VALENTINA DORIA I II III - SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
4 CLAIM - TRAILER PAGE - VALENTINA DORIA I II III - SOPHIA OF WISDOW III
4 CLAIM OF PARANORMAL ACTIVITY IN THE NOBEL MILANESE FAMILY OF THE CRIVELLI
4 CLAIM THE DIVINE COUPLE - JFK,JR. OR MICHAEL BERGIN - 1ST ASCENDED MASTER
4 CLAIM SPIRITUAL CHANGING RESURRECTION - SPRING TIME APR 15
4 CLAIM LAWRENCE FROM MONTBELLO THE OTHER 1ST FATHER
4 CLAIM ARACDIA = CALLISTO = CAMELOT = ZEUS
4 CLAIM PROOF OF PROLIFERATION WITH THE BEVEATRON MACHINE - ANGELS & DEMONS
4 CLAIM ALSO PROLIFERATION WITH USE OF BLACK MAGIC & ILLUMINATI MARRIAGE RITALS
4 CLAIM HEROD & DORIS = VALENTINA DORIA CRIVELLI - VISCONTI - HISTORY
4 CLAIM HEROD'S WIFES & CHILDREN
4 CLAIM ANTIPATER SON OF HEROD & DORIS - YOU ARE COPYING MY WORK AREN'T YOU
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Herod the Great
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Maurice the Manichean
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Constantine the Great
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Theodosius, Alaric
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Theodoric
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Justinian, Charles Martel
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Charlemagne the Great
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Heinrich I the Fowler
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Otto I the Great
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Pope John XII
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Otto II
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Otto III
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Henry II the Saint
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Frederick Barbarossa
4 CLAIM THE PROPHECIES OF ST MALACHY OF UBERTO OF THE MILANESE OF CRIVELLI
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - VATICAN
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Henry VI
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Otto IV
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Frederick II
4 CLAIM VALENTINA DORIA - CRIVELLI - VISCONTI
4 CLAIM DA VINCI CODE REVEALS WHO THE HOLY SPIRIT IS THREW THE MADONNA ON THE ROCKS
4 CLAIM MONA LISA = THE SEEDS OF LIFE & THE HOLY SPIRIT & HER TITLES - COPPYING MY WORK AGAIN
4 CLAIM CARLO CRIVELLI AND CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA
4 CLAIM FOUND THE RIGHTFUL HEIR TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND = CRIVELLI - VISCONTI - STUART FAMILY
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Kaiser Wilhelm
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Lt. Walter William Horn
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - General Patton
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - Royal House of Hapsburg
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - NINA ALVES
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - SHARI BROBECK
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - LISA GONZALES
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - CAROLYN BESSETTE
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - LISA TOMAS
4 CLAIM THE MARRIAGE OF CRIVELLI - CERVANTES - HERNANDEZ & MACDONALD - STUART IN THE ILLUMINATI
4 CLAIM CAROLINE'S VISIONS OF HER MOTHER - AUNT VIRGINIA - GRANDPARENTS - CONSTANTINE & JFK,JR
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - TWIN TOWERS
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - LYNDA CUNNINGHAM & LYNDA GUNTHRIE = ANNA HANKS
4 CLAIM SPEAR OF DESTINY - 9 / 11 TERRORISTS
4 CLAIM TARMA VANDERMEER VISION'S ABOUT JFK,JR - CAROLYN BESSETTE & ELIZABETH MITCHELL
4 CLAIM TAYLOR'S VISION'S OF DANIEL PEARL - DOUBLE AGENT REPORTING FOR DUTY
4 CLAIM AVA'S SAYINGS ABOUT BEING A SPIRIT HELPER & THE NEW HOLY SPIRIT
4 CLAIM MICHAEL'S VISIONS OF HERA - ZEUS & HERROD & WHAT HE TOLD ME ABOUT HIS MOTHER & JFK,JR
4 CLAIM ONE WORLD ORDER THE ARMAGEDDON IN ALAMEDA - LA CASA BLANCA - ON THE INTERNET
4 CLAIM SUMMARY OF IMPERIAL HUBRIS TERRORISTS OF THE WEST THE FIGHT STILL GOES ON

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - PROPHECIES OF ST. MALACHY


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
AKA
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
 
JUN 13, 2008

RE: POPE'S HANDLING CHARGERS

IF YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE POPE IS WEARING LEATHER GLOVES THIS IS TO PROTECT FROM THE ELECTRICITY FROM THE CHARGER IN THE ROD OF RULE THIS PRINCIPLE GOES FOR KINGS AND QUEENS

I SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA HAVE TO WEAR GLOVES WHEN WORKING SOMETIMES BECAUSE WALK INS USE ME TO THROW MAGIC WITH MY HANDS

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - PROPHECIES ST. MALACHY 3


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
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JUN 13, 2008

RE: PROPHECIES OF ST. MALACHY 3

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - PROPHECIES OF ST. MALACHY


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
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CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

RE: PROPHECIES OF ST. MALACHY

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - ROD OF RULE


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CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

RE: ROD OF RULE

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CLAIM: FOUND THE RIGHTFUL HEIR TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND = CRIVELLI - VISCO

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - GRANDPA CHARLIE


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
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CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

RE: POPE URBAN III - UBERTO CRIVELLI - VISCONTI - CARLO CRIVELLI
GREAT GRANDFATHER OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

TODAY IS A GREAT DAY FOR MY FAMILY AND ALL THE WORLD THOUGH POPE URBAN III WAS DENIED ENTRANCE TO THE ALPS TO GO THE VATICAN FROM MILAN HE WAS THE ONE WHO SET UP THE UMILIATI TO ASSIST THE PEOPLE WHO WERE BEING STRIPED OF EVERYTHING THEY OWNED

THEY PUT THEIR FAITH IN THE VIRGIN MARY'S HANDS AND IT HAS TAKEN ALMOST A 1,000 YEARS TO FINALLY IDENTIFY THE FACELESS DEMONIC FORCES WHO HAVE CAUSED ALL THE TERROR AND HORROR IN THE UNIVERSE

THEY STARTED OUT AS MY FRIENDS BUT I DIDN'T KNOW THEY WERE GOING TO GET INVOLVED WITH MY POWERS AND TITLES I WORKED SO HARD FOR

THEY GOT SO FAR AS LEARNING HOW TO BIRTH PLANETS WITHOUT GRIDS IN OTHER UNIVERSES IF YOU CAN BELIEVE THAT I HAVE THEIR NAMES AND WILL PRODUCE THEM

THEIR ACTIONS HAVE CAUSED ST JOHN OF WISDOM III THE FIRST FATHER TO LOSE HIS DIVINE RIGHT TO RULE WITH ME

SEE THE NAMES OF THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS UNDER HERODS WIFE'S

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HEROD'S WIFE'S

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CRIVELLI - VISCONTI STAR GOD


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
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JUN 13, 2008
 

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - UMILIATI - 1


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
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CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

RE: UMILIATI

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UMILIATI

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - ONE WORLD ORDER SCROLLS 1


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
AKA
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

RE: ONE WORLD ORDER SCROLLS

THE MAGI'S WERE BRINGING THE ONE WORLD ORDER FILES FOR THE FUTURE TO BABY JESUS AND PLAYING KEEP AWAY FROM THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS

BABY JESUS WAS ARISTOBULUS III OF JUDEA - THE LAST SCION - CLAYTON ALEXANDER MCRORY - KENNEDY AND SWITCHED OUT WITH HIS BROTHER - IN - LAW / FATHER FORMERLY KNOWN AS HEROD OR JFK,JR

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - ONE WORLD ORDER SCROLLS 2


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
AKA
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - OAK ISLAND 2


LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
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CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

JUN 13, 2008

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The Spear Of Destiny

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    The Spear of Destiny, also known as the Spear Longinus, is an ancient weapon, supposedly forged by the equally ancient Hebrew prophet, Phineas. Legend has it, is has been passed down from dynasty to dynasty over the centuries.

    At the crucifixion of Jesus, the Spear was in the possession of the Roman Centurion, Gaius Cassius Longinus. It was Longinus who pierced Jesus' side with the Spear, causing blood and water to spurt forth from the wound. The mixture apparently splattered in Longinus' face, restoring his vision, which had been failing. The circumstances surrounding Jesus' crucifixion had such a profound effect on Longinus that he later sought out the surviving Apostles, so he could learn from them. He later moved to Caesarea of Cappadocia and became a monk, where he was eventually condemned to death for being a Christian.

    Among those who are alleged to have possessed the Spear at one time or another are : Herod the Great (King of Judea, ruled 37 BC-4BC), Maurice the Manichean (from Egypt, who held the spear until his death circa 306, to keep it from the Emperor Maximian), Constantine the Great (Roman Emperor, b.337, d.361, carried it into victory at the battle of Milvian Bridge and also while surveying the layout of his new city, Constantinople), Theodosius, Alaric (who sacked Rome), Theodoric (the only man to force Attila the Hun to retreat, circa 451), Justinian, Charles Martel (Frankish ruler, grandfather of Charlemagne, b.688?, d.741), and Charlemagne the Great (Carolingian King of France, Emperor of the West, b.771, d.814, carried the Spear through 47 victorious battles, but died when he accidentally dropped it).

    In the early 900's, it fell into the possession of the Saxon Dynasty of Germany, passing from Heinrich I the Fowler (Duke of Saxony, Saxon King of Germany, ruled 919-936, the Spear was present at his victorious battle against the Magyars) to his son Otto I the Great (Saxon King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 936-973, Pope John XII (term 955-963) used the Spear to chrsiten him Holy Roman Emperor in 936 - Otto went on to carry the Spear into vicctory over the Mongols in the Battle of Leck). After his death, there are conflicting stories of what happened to the Spear. One tale says it was passed on to his son Otto II (Saxon King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 973-983), then to Otto III (Saxon King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 983-1002), and eventually to Henry II the Saint (Saxon King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 1002-1024). Another story claims it was moved to Antioch following the death of Otto I the Great, where it remained until rediscovered in 1098, during the First Crusade.

    Eventually, it fell into the possession of the house of Hohenstaufen (descendants of the house of Saxon) and to Frederick Barbarossa (Holy Roman Emperor and conqueror of Italy during the 12th century, ruled 1152-1190, Barbarossa died within minutes after accidentally dropping the Spear into a stream), Henry VI (King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 1190-1197), Otto IV (Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 1198-1218), and Frederick II (King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, ruled 1218?-1250). It was allegedly possessed by three other Hohenstaufen Emperors as well.

    Napoleon attempted to sieze the Spear after the Battle of Austerlitz, but it had smugged out of Vienna just prior to the battle, so he never managed to obtain it.

    Obviously, having "the Great" (or a Roman Numeral) as part of your name increases your chance of actually possessing the Spear - as does having the occupation of "Emperor".

    In the early 20th century, it was briefly in the possession of Kaiser Wilhelm, before eventually ending up the Hofsburg Treasure House in Vienna. It was there, in September of 1912, where Adolf Hitler first laid his eyes upon it...

      "I knew with immediacy that this was an important moment in my life...I stood there quietly gazing upon it for several minutes, quite oblivious to the scene around me. It seemed to carry some hidden inner meaning which evaded me, a meaning which I felt I inwardly knew, yet could not bring to consciousness...I felt as though I myself had held it in my hands before in some earlier century of history - that I myself had once claimed it as my talisman of power and held the destiny of the world in my hands. What sort of madness was this that was invading my mind and creating such turmoil in my breast ?"

    Adolf Hitler seized the Spear in the name of the Third Reich on March 12th, 1938, the day he annexed Austria. It was shipped via an armored SS train to Nuremberg on October 13th (the same date that the Knights Templar were destroyed centuries earlier), where it remained for six years in St. Catherine's Church before being moved to an underground vault for protection.

    During the final days of the war in Europe, at 2:10 PM on April 30th, 1945, Lt. Walter William Horn, serial number 01326328, of the United States 7th Army, took possession of the Spear in the name of the United States government.

    Within 90 minutes of the United States capturing the Spear, Adolf Hitler committed suicide.

    Generals Eisenhower and Patton decided to return the Spear to the Royal House of Hapsburg shortly thereafter.

    The staff of the spear has long since disappeared. All that remains now are the Spear's head (in two sections), and a bolt used to connect the two sections, rumored to be one of the actual nails from the True Cross.

    The Spear has been in the possession of the Royal House of Hapsburg (de jure Holy Roman Emperors) for quite some time. It now rests, once again, in the Hofsburg Treasure House in Austria, where Hitler first saw it in 1912, and where the public can see it, free of charge, Monday through Saturday, 9am-6pm.

    A copy of the Spear is kept in Cracow, Poland. Another Spear, also claimed to be the true Spear of Destiny, was taken by St. Louis to Paris, following his return from the Crusades in Palestine in the 13th century. Yet another "true" Spear was sent to Pope Innocent VIII by the Ottoman Sultan Bajazet II in 1492. That Spear is now encased in one of the pillars supporting the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.

    Return to the Alternative History page.

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Sanskrit (संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism and other Indian religions,[1] and one of the 23 scheduled languages of India.[2] It belongs to the historical Indo-Aryan family of languages.

Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the 4th century BCE. Its position in the cultures of South and Southeast Asia is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of India.[3]

The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BCE,[4] qualifying Rigvedic Sanskrit as the oldest attestation of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family.[5]

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as technical scientific, philosophical and Hindu religious texts. Today, Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit is still in use in a few traditional institutions in India, and there are some attempts at revival.

Etymology

The verbal adjective saṃskṛta- may be translated as "put together, well or completely formed, refined, highly elaborated". It is derived from the root saṃ(s)kar- "to put together, compose, arrange, prepare",[6] where saṃ- "together" and (s)kar- "do, make". The language referred to as saṃskṛtā vāk "the cultured language" has by definition always been a "high" language, used for religious and learned discourse and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- "natural, artless, normal, ordinary". It is also called dēva-bhāṣā meaning "divine language".

History

Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.
Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.

Sanskrit is a member of the Indo-Iranian sub-family of the Indo-European family of languages. It has the characteristic Satem sound changes associated with other members of Indo-Iranian.

The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight-Chapter Grammar") dating to circa the 4th century BCE. It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines (rather than describes) correct Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had already passed out of use in Pāṇini's time.

The term "Sanskrit" was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as Pāṇini. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the Prakrits (vernaculars), which evolved into the Middle Indic dialects, and eventually into the contemporary modern Indo-Aryan languages.

Vedic Sanskrit

Main article: Vedic Sanskrit

Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, had evolved out of the earlier "Vedic" form. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Paninian" Sanskrit as separate 'dialects'. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, and grammar and syntax that make the understanding of Vedic difficult. Classical Sanskrit is considered to have descended from Vedic Sanskrit. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological discussions, and religio-philosophical discussions (Brahmanas, Upanishads) which are the earliest religious texts of the Hindu religion. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional compilations. The current hypothesis holds that the Vedic form of Sanskrit survived until the middle of the first millennium BCE.[citation needed] It is around this time that Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning, marking the beginning of the Classical period.

Classical Sanskrit

For nearly two thousand years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia.[7] A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or "innovations" and not because they are pre-Paninean.[8] Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations aarsha (आर्ष), or "of the rishis", the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Finally, there is also a language called "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit" by scholars, which starts out from Buddhist prakrit texts and gradually evolved to various forms of Sanskrit, some more prakritized than the others,[9] According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, viz., paścimottarī (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three are even attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6).

Decline

See also: Termination of spoken Sanskrit

Exactly how and when Sanskrit became a "dead" language isn't clearly understood, but the process was similar to that of Latin, as Pollock (2001) describes it:[10]

"Both died slowly, and earliest as a vehicle of literary expression, while much longer retaining significance for learned discourse with its universalist claims. Both were subject to periodic renewals or forced rebirths, sometimes in connection with a politics of translocal aspiration… At the same time… both came to be ever more exclusively associated with narrow forms of religion and priestcraft, despite centuries of a secular aesthetic."

The decline of Sanskrit use in literary and political circles was likely the result of a weakening of the political institutions that supported it as well as by heightened competition with vernacular languages seeking literary-cultural dignity. There was regional variation in the forcefulness of these vernacular movements and Sanskrit declined in different ways across the subcontinent. For example, Kashmiri replaced Sanskrit as the language of literature after the thirteenth century and Sanskrit works from the Vijayanagara Empire failed to circulate outside of their place and time of composition while works in Telugu and Kannada flourished.[11] This "death" of Sanskrit did not mean it fell out of use in literary cultures of India and, despite literary use of vernacular languages, those who could read in vernacular languages could do the same in Sanskrit[12] (in addition, even Muslim rulers made attempts to revive literary Sanskrit[13]). What it did mean, though, was that Sanskrit was not used to express changing forms of subjectivity and sociality embodied and conceptualized in the modern age.[14] Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored and any creativity in Sanskrit was restricted to religious hymns and verses

Decline

See also: Termination of spoken Sanskrit

Exactly how and when Sanskrit became a "dead" language isn't clearly understood, but the process was similar to that of Latin, as Pollock (2001) describes it:[10]

"Both died slowly, and earliest as a vehicle of literary expression, while much longer retaining significance for learned discourse with its universalist claims. Both were subject to periodic renewals or forced rebirths, sometimes in connection with a politics of translocal aspiration… At the same time… both came to be ever more exclusively associated with narrow forms of religion and priestcraft, despite centuries of a secular aesthetic."

The decline of Sanskrit use in literary and political circles was likely the result of a weakening of the political institutions that supported it as well as by heightened competition with vernacular languages seeking literary-cultural dignity. There was regional variation in the forcefulness of these vernacular movements and Sanskrit declined in different ways across the subcontinent. For example, Kashmiri replaced Sanskrit as the language of literature after the thirteenth century and Sanskrit works from the Vijayanagara Empire failed to circulate outside of their place and time of composition while works in Telugu and Kannada flourished.[11] This "death" of Sanskrit did not mean it fell out of use in literary cultures of India and, despite literary use of vernacular languages, those who could read in vernacular languages could do the same in Sanskrit[12] (in addition, even Muslim rulers made attempts to revive literary Sanskrit[13]). What it did mean, though, was that Sanskrit was not used to express changing forms of subjectivity and sociality embodied and conceptualized in the modern age.[14] Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored and any creativity in Sanskrit was restricted to religious hymns and verses

Phonology

Further information: Śikṣā

Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes. There is, however, some allophony and the writing systems used for Sanskrit generally indicate this, thus distinguishing 48 sounds.

The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (Ach), diphthongs (Hal), anusvara and visarga, plosives (Sparśa) and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details):

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
y r l v; ś ṣ s h

An alternate traditional ordering is that of the Shiva Sutra of Pāṇini.

Vowels

See also: R-colored vowel#Vocalic R in Sanskrit

The vowels of Classical Sanskrit with their word-initial Devanagari symbol, diacritical mark with the consonant प् (/p/), pronunciation (of the vowel alone and of /p/+vowel) in IPA, equivalent in IAST and ITRANS and (approximate) equivalents in English are listed below:

The long vowels are pronounced twice as long as their short counterparts. Also, there exists a third, extra-long length for most vowels, called pluti, which is used in various cases, but particularly in the vocative. The pluti is not accepted by all grammarians.

The vowels /e/ and /o/ continue as allophonic variants of Proto-Indo-Iranian /ai/, /au/ and are categorized as diphthongs by Sanskrit grammarians even though they are realized phonetically as simple long vowels. (See above).

Additional points:

  • There are some additional signs traditionally listed in tables of the Devanagari script:
    • The diacritic called anusvāra, (IAST: ). It is used both to indicate the nasalization of the vowel in the syllable ([◌̃] and to represent the sound of a syllabic /n/ or /m/; e.g. पं /pəŋ/.
    • The diacritic called visarga, represents /əh/ (IAST: ); e.g. पः /pəh/.
    • The diacritic called chandrabindu, not traditionally included in Devanagari charts for Sanskrit, is used interchangeably with the anusvāra to indicate nasalization of the vowel, primarily in Vedic notation; e.g. पँ /pə̃/.
  • If a lone consonant needs to be written without any following vowel, it is given a halanta/virāma diacritic below (प्).
  • The vowel /aː/ in Sanskrit is realized as being more central and less back than the closest English approximation, which is /ɑː/. But the grammarians have classified it as a back vowel.[17].
  • The ancient Sanskrit grammarians classified the vowel system as velars, retroflexes, palatals and plosives rather than as back, central and front vowels. Hence and are classified respectively as palato-velar (a+i) and labio-velar (a+u) vowels respectively. But the grammarians have classified them as diphthongs and in prosody, each is given two mātrās. This does not necessarily mean that they are proper diphthongs, but neither excludes the possibility that they could have been proper diphthongs at a very ancient stage (see above). These vowels are pronounced as long /eː/ and /oː/ respectively by learned Sanskrit Brahmans and priests of today. Other than the "four" diphthongs, Sanskrit usually disallows any other diphthong—vowels in succession, where they occur, are converted to semivowels according to sandhi rules.
  • In the Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, whenever a consonant in a word-ending position is without any virāma (freely standing in the orthography: as opposed to प्), the neutral vowel schwa (/ə/) is automatically associated with it—this is of course true for the consonant to be in any position in the word. Word-ending schwa is always short. But the IAST a appended to the end of masculine noun words rather confuses the foreigners to pronounce it as /ɑː/—this makes the masculine Sanskrit words sound like feminine! e.g., shiva must be pronounced as /ɕivə/ and not as /ɕivɑː/.[18] argues that in Vedic Sanskrit, अ indicated short /ɑ/, and became centralized and raised in the era of the Prakrits.

SEE SANSKIRT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

 
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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

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VALENTINA DORIA I II III -
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III -
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